United Airline Flight 232 Accident


Software, Hardware, Environment, and Liveware in airplane industry is characterized as the relationship between human components and the aviation environment. This concept initially originated from SHEL model by Edwards in 1972, which was a name that is derived from various components. They included Software, Hardware, Environment, and Liveware. It’s believed that most of the air accidents are related to errors that are human created. In today’s reality new high innovation hardware’shave diminished the rate at which mechanical disappointmentscan occur (Earl, 2006).

Most importantly, shell model emphasizes on the interface between people and the other components rather than the components themselves. Our focus is the United Airlines Flight 232 accident thatapparently brings out the perception of SHELL. UAL Flight 232 developed many complications that can be attributed to Shell model when analyzing the accident.

Hawkins (1987) claimed the model emphasizes on interfaces, i.e. L-H system. The interaction between the liveware and the hardware is referred to as the man to machine system. An example can explain this system that aircraft should provide a high value of service i.e. fitting seats in aircraft for passengers comfort. This forms the critical part component in this model. Thus, there is need for aviation pundits to explore and come up with achievable measures in day to day running of airline services. In Most planes, the design of controls and displays should be coordinated with human attributes and accommodations for the sole reason of reducing the possibility of the livewire to the hardware error. Other interactions include liveware to Software interface, liveware to Center liveware, and live ware to the environment.

First things first, main elements of the model can be listed as follows;

Hardware- they compose different instruments, equipment’s, flying machine workspace, and physical resources that do not include human elements in the aviation. The primary cause of the flights accidents that to hardware factors include:

  • Failure of the engine number 2
  • Failure of the hydraulic power despite the fact that air driven generator was deployed.
  • Damage to the right and left horizontal stabilizers.

Software– This is all the non-physical resources that are used for organically operations like rules, organizational policies, manuals, and placard. During the United Airline Flight232 accident, software resources that majorly played a vital role in the crashis:

  • The Autopilot that was engaged failed at some point
  • General failure of the airplane system
  • Elevator control failed due to lack of hydraulic fluid.

Center Liveware– this is simply the Liveware, which is the center of the SHELL model. It can be defined as human factors such as knowledge, attitudes, cultures, and stress. Liveware in most SHEL model is considered as the core of the model, and other components must match with liveware as the central figure. Some factors that contributed to the accident that fall under live ware include:

  • Lack of proper inspection and maintenance of the Engine before the flight took off from the engineers.
  • Poor coordination by the people in Sioux City airport.
  • Limited length runway with incorrect take-off reference speeds and stuck an approach lighting structure disabling 3 of the four hydraulic systems for the flight controls.





Earl, L. (2006). Aviation Human Factors Study Guide, Massey University Publisher

Hawkins, F. (1987). Human factors in flight (2nd Ed.). Ashgate Publishers. Aldershot,                  UK.


Online Marketing Strategy Paper



Most of the organizations operating across the world regardless of its size require an internet marketing strategy that will facilitate the increase in sales as well presence to a wide variety of people. These days most people carry out their transaction online through social media platforms as opposed to traditional methods where advertisements entailed the order of the day. The internet allows people as well as organizations to interact with a wide variety of issues, and thus organizations aim at capturing their attention through pop-up ads describing their products and services. It is, therefore, important to understand the basic concepts involved in the need to be implemented for companies to achieve increased profits. The contents of this paper will include these concepts as well as the basic strategy applied by most organizations for them to succeed.


Over the years, the internet has become the primary source of information for people across the world. Most people prefer using the Internet for searching anything as opposed to conventional methods or going through tons of pages looking for certain information. The same case applies to businesses conducted across the globe where people peruse the internet searching for commodities and services that will satisfy their needs. They later make purchases online, and the goods are delivered to their doorsteps in a timely basis (Brooks, 2014). These aspects have built intense competition as companies strive to acquire awareness to a wide variety of people accessing the internet. Many organizations utilize the powerful instrument as a marketing tool where they indulge people on their operations and services (Brooks, 2014).

Research in this area indicates that the preliminary steps involved in building an online marketing strategy involve defining the brand of the company. This entails describing the origin of the company regarding where it started and what drove the founders to start their company. Similarly, the definition of a brand would involve reflecting on the business practices that make it unique (Brooks, 2014). The second step in defining the brand would involve engaging the customers regarding the aspects they like or don’t like about your company. They would also give some insight on why they chose your company over the competitors in that industry (Brooks, 2014). These aspects will create a better understanding of the factors of the company that resonates with the customers. They would also facilitate the reflection of the message in the brand. According to, to (Brooks, 2014), engaging the customers in creating a suitable message for the brand would help in giving a distinct perspective about the advantageous points of the company.

The next step aspect that would facilitate the definition of the brand would involve conducting a competitor research where the owners look at their competitors’ internet appearance with the aim of establishing their strengths and weaknesses. It would also allow identification of their communication techniques with their customers (Internet Marketing Strategies for Entrepreneurs, 2015). The consideration of these aspects would allow identification of opportunities that they would implement into to make their company. The last step to consider in defining a brand for your company would be compiling all the information as well as developing the brand. After the information regarding the origin of the company has been established and the tactics employed by competitors as well as sentiments from customers, the next thing would be developing the brand. However, it would involve consideration of factors such as the aspects of the origin and customers sentiments that proved unique and seemed interesting. Then, the next step would require figuring out how to talk about those things (Internet Marketing Strategies for Entrepreneurs, 2015).

After defining the brand, the next step in developing an online marketing strategy would involve reviewing the website contents and language in a customers’ perspective. This would require considering whether the website contains information about the needs of the target audience. The information regarding the needs of the customers would include the operations of the company, in-depth details about the products and services as well as contact information where customers may reach them (Internet Marketing Strategies for Entrepreneurs, 2015). Research indicates that these steps play a huge role in creating an understanding to the customers regarding what the company entails and how they would acquire more information from the contact details. It also indicates that companies should consider using a language used by their target audience. This would be achieved through the use of terms that address the core competencies as well as through the lens that makes the company different (Internet Marketing Strategies for Entrepreneurs, 2015).

Besides, the next necessary for developing an online marketing strategy would involve establishing the overarching marketing strategy. The aspects in this step would be achieved on the basis that the company runs an optimized website for search engines. The development of the online marketing strategy would involve a content strategy where stances are taken to help in solving the unique problems faced by the customers (Chaffey, 2009). The stances would ensure that customer keeping visiting the website to find out more about how they may solve their problems or access some services (Chaffey, 2009). Some activists attest to these factors through claiming that quality content on the website would enable customers to access a wide variety of information thus allowing them to stick to one source other than hovering over the internet looking for information (Chaffey, 2009). In addition, quality content regarding the products and services offered in a company would allow the customer to gain some trust in the company. Therefore, it would be essential for a company to provide information at intervals to keep the customers satisfied (Chaffey, 2009).

Another important phase of creating a logic and suitable online marketing strategy would include the creation of a multi-faceted structure. These different facets would facilitate the increase in the recognition of the brand through launching several marketing campaigns at the same time (Chaffey, 2009). The first phase would include creating a social media site for a responsible person to launch interesting material on a daily basis. The material launched would attract followers through consistent updates. For example, the responsible party should ensure that the company’s website consists of fresh information regarding new products or services or even advice on the development of a component (Chaffey, 2009).

Secondly, the social media personnel should engage in the creation of SEO articles that mention major words related to the company’s products. They should also provide tips regarding the introduction of the products to people (Chessman, 2015). These articles ensure that the website appears on the first pages of the internet search thus allowing people to develop the interest of looking at it. These would be followed closely by the collection or buying of email lists that would enable email blasts to be sent to the recipients and update them on the products and services (Chessman, 2015). The social media team should also be involved in the creation of videos of people using the company’s products or indicating the procedures for using the products. The videos should also contain information on people advocating on the importance of the company’s products (Chessman, 2015). Experts in these issues indicate that videos on media platforms would allow customers to gain confidence in the products as they would believe that other people have used them and acquired the benefits. For example, the video of a person consuming a coke soda on Facebook would attract the confidence of more people as they would aspire to attain the same feeling (Chessman, 2015).

Additionally, pop-up ads should be utilized in communicating the brand image of the company through videos or other product info appearing the ads. Companies should hire people to develop appropriate ads that would capture the attention of the customer and lure them towards considering the products offered by the company (Acidre, 2010). The essence of pop-up ads entails driving the customer towards looking at the contents of the ad and later accessing the information from the website or the social media platforms (Acidre, 2010).

The company should also establish tracking capabilities for the campaigns they set up. These should be achieved through setting up Google Analytics accounts through the main Google accounts. They should also be accompanied by the creation of campaigns for every facet of the company’s strategy to allow focus on the campaigns that have the best returns on investments (Acidre, 2010). The occurrence of these aspects should occur through consideration of printing ads aimed at catering for the market as well as launches at the same time as the internet marketing campaign. Similarly, companies should invest in promotions aimed at creating brand awareness. This should occur through building relationships with other businesses within the area of operation (The Top 7 Online Marketing Trends that will Dominate 2014, 2014). It should also entail active involvement in forums specific to the industry. The company should build the relationships by positioning themselves as potential leaders (The Top 7 Online Marketing Trends that will Dominate 2014, 2014). Resultantly, these activities facilitate in growing the company’s name that may eventually lead to brand awareness and links. For instance, small companies seeking to establish their roots and create awareness of their existence should build relationships with the already established companies in the same industry. These strategies would give them a platform to compete with the big companies and probably get some customers (The Top 7 Online Marketing Trends that will Dominate 2014, 2014).

Experts in the marketing field indicate that launching campaigns in the same few days and weeks bring about consistency in the methods requiring communication with customers. It also allows the company to follow up on the orders placed with ease and speed thus facilitating good reviews on the company’s website as well as other marketplaces (Parks, 2015). However, critics in the same field indicate that launching these campaigns at the same time would confuse the customers as they would have a wide variety to choose. It would be appropriate to launch the most effective campaigns to create a significant impact on the customers by helping them decide on the right products (Parks, 2015). The campaigns should comprise of all the necessary information thus enabling the customer to peruse over the details easily. For instance, a company such as Apple applies such strategies through notifying their customers on recent developments as well as new products and services. These campaigns help the company to evaluate the effectiveness obtained through the returns on investments (Parks, 2015).

Consequently, specialists in the field and web entrepreneurs indicate that a good online marketing strategy should include steps such as an attractive site that focus on the usability as opposed to one that only focuses on acquiring sales. It should also avoid using technologies that will make it difficult for some customers to access or navigate (Internet Marketing Strategies for Entrepreneurs, 2015). They recommend the use of HTML service providers as they offer efficient procedures. However, they warn against the use of service providers such as Java or Flash as they possess hindrances to the ease of access. The third component entails limitations on the number of audio and video files used on the (Lake, 2015)company’s website. Further studies suggest that the videos used should be compressed to allow fast download as customers would get bored and impatient with large files.

Specialist indicates that the appropriate way to ensure efficiency in the strategy applied should be through hiring experts specialized in designing graphics aimed at producing headers that grab the attention of customers. When visitors view the headers, they tend to believe that they possess valuable information and thus make it hard to ignore (Internet Marketing Strategies for Entrepreneurs, 2015). The headers should thus be developed in a manner that creates an impact on the customers. Besides, they should apply powerful headlines on the company’s website. Information from other sources indicates that the headlines should be accompanied by images, but it would be important to ensure that the images complement the message indicated in the headline (Internet Marketing Strategies for Entrepreneurs, 2015). These aspects would push the customer towards the company’s desired action.

Seemingly, the website should incorporate squeeze pages that apply languages and phrases aimed at prompting the customers towards visiting their contact information.



The development of online marketing strategies requires consideration of the necessities required. These necessities entail the development of an online presence through branding the company, ensuring that the company utilizes the appropriate social media platforms, and major components are included on the company’s website. However, the achievement of these aspects requires the involvement of experts who would ensure that the components are in order and serve the right purpose. Marketing strategies through the internet aim at capturing the attention of the customer and allow mitigation of their activities towards making purchases or recommendations to their friends (Chessman, 2015). However, the occurrence of these activities requires awareness of the company’s activities and products. The internet provides a viable platform where companies must create their awareness as well as establish their brand to the outside world. It offers a channel where customers get to decide on which products and services appeal to them based on the ads available to them.














Acidre, J. (2010). Online marketing strategies- Strategic integration of SEO, Link Building,            Social Media . Retrieved from kaiserthesage: http://kaiserthesage.com/seo-strategies-       resources/

Brooks, C. (2014, 9 29). The Digital Marketng Strategiers Busineses Say Work Best. Retrieved      from Business News Daily Senior Writer: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/7204-       internet-marketing-strategies.html

Chaffey, D. (2009). Online marketing strategies . Retrieved from Smart insights to boost ypor      leads and sales from online marketing: http://www.smartinsights.com/solution/online-            marketing-strategy/

Chessman, M. (2015). Building Online Marketing Strategies for Small Businesses. Retrieved          from https://moz.com/blog/small-business-marketing-strategies

Internet Marketing Strategies for Enterpreneurs. (2015). Retrieved from             http://www.usanfranonline.com/resources/internet-marketing/internet-marketing-   strategies/#

Lake, L. (2015). Top 10 Marketing Strategies . Retrieved from Internet marketing tips:             http://marketing.about.com/od/internetmarketingstrategy/a/internettips.htm

Parks, J. (2015). 15 Step Guideline to Create your perfect 2015 Digital marketing strategy.             Retrieved from jeffbullas.com: http://www.jeffbullas.com/2014/10/08/15-step-guideline-       to-create-your-2015-digital-marketing-strategy/

The Top 7 Online Marketing Trends that will Dominate 2014. (2014). Retrieved from Forbes/             Entrepreneurs: http://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2013/09/17/the-top-7-online-     marketing-trends-that-will-dominate-2014/




In chapter six, the information that I was able to learn involves the aspects of protein Amino acids. The knowledge that I acquired from this section includes the types of the amino acids that human beings ingest and the functions that the amino acids usually play in the body of a person. One interesting factor to note is that the combination of amino acids helps in the formation of proteins. In the end, both the amino acids and proteins are identified as the building blocks of life in a human body. Amino acids and proteins help in the breakdown of food and also assists in growth (Eleanor & Sharon, 2012 p167).

In chapter seven, there was learning and understanding of the energy metabolism. The human body needs the energy to sustain all the activities. The chapter discusses the importance of energy in the body of a person such as it facilitates breathing and hence becomes the capacity to do work in a person. In the chapter, I was able to learn about energy metabolism and how the human body uses food to assist in the meeting of the body needs. Consequently, I was able to learn why some foods meet the needs better than other foods (Eleanor & Sharon, 2012 p197).

In chapter eight, I was able to learn about energy balance and body composition. The section provided necessary information on the foods that were important in the power generation of the body and also the importance of having the right energy balance in a body system (p 231). Moreover, in chapter nine, more information on weight management was among the information that I was able to learn. Thus, it came to my understanding that nutrition is an important consideration towards the acquisition of the right body weight. The neglect of such weights is harmful and might result in diseases such as obesity. I was able to understand more about overweight and underweight individuals (Eleanor & Sharon, 2012 p264). In chapter ten, I was able to learn the importance of vitamins in the human body. Information such as the roles vitamin b and vitamin c play in a body system was available for learning and for understanding. (Eleanor & Sharon, 2012 p297)

Consequently, the following concepts were also learned in the learning log. In chapter six, there was information about the composition of proteins as well as the how proteins are digested and absorbed in the body. (p171). These lessons did help in the improvement of th knowledge about proteins. In chapter seven, another important concept that I was priviledged to learn is the idea of feasting and fasting (p 213). In this concept, it became clear that feasting results to excess energy in the body while fasting results to inadequate energy. Chapter eight presented an opportunity to learn the concept of how calories are provided by food (p 232). In this chapter, more information was available on the food composition and food intake. In chapter nine, another concept that I was able to learn about includes the causes of overweight and obesity. I was able to understand what causes obesity and also what causes overweight (p264). Lastly, in the tenth chapter, there was information available on the concept of vitamin C where I was able to learn on the roles of vitamin C, the toxicity as well as effects of vitamin C deficiency (p 322).

In the reading log, some words are a vocabulary and essential in understanding nutrition. These words include amino acids, obesity, energy balance, energy metabolism, and vitamins. In definition, amino acids are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid and an amine which combine to form proteins. Obesity is defined as a medical condition that results due to the excess accumulation of body fats causing adverse health conditions. Energy balance involves the balancing of calories that are consumed through ingestion of different kinds of food. Energy metabolism, on the other hand, processes involving chemical processes that result in the release of energy in the body to sustain the activities. Lastly, vitamins are defined as the substances that are needed by the human body for growth and sustenance of a normal functioning.

The vocabulary learned in this log includes Vitamins, amino acids, obesity, energy balance and energy metabolism. The doctor concluded that Patrick was suffering from obesity simply because he had inadequate vitamins and excess amino acids in his body. Therefore, the doctor suggested frequent exercise to improve on the energy metabolism and balance on Patrick’s body.

The information acquired from the reading log have an impact on the food that I am consuming. In chapter eight, the lesson about energy balance is important as it has enabled me to start consuming foods that have the required calorie levels. Furthermore, after the experience in chapter ten, I can identify foods that have the vital vitamins which help in the development of the human body. In my nutrition diet, I always ensure that I have a consumption of vitamins.

Consequently, a new thing that I was able to learn was the aspect that the lack of vitamins in a human body often causes diseases to the body of the individual. Moreover, I learned that it is important for human beings to often be careful on their weight and avoid challenges that come with being overweight or underweight.







Eleanor, W., & Sharon, R. (2012). Understanding Nutrition. Cengage Learning.





Environmental economics is the study of agent’s decisions that have environmental consequences and how to affect these decisions to achieve environmental quality goals. There are some common but incomplete explanations:  a) Environmental degradation is the result of immoral or unethical behaviour. — If this is true then we all act immorally.Environmental economics (and economics in general) does not pass judgment on people.  We only seek to understand their behaviour. b) Environmental degradation is the result of the profit motive. Firms only care about the bottom line, and hence, do not care at all about the impacts their decisions have on environmental quality. It is probably true, but can’t be enough. Consumers pollute too. 2) Some of the worst polluters are government agencies and they aren’t motivated by profit.  Perhaps the worst polluter in the U.S. has been the Department of Defence. 3) Globally, significant environmental destruction has occurred under the old communist regimes, under which there wasn’t supposed to be any profits. c) Environmental degradation is the result of the lack of information. “If we only knew how our actions affect the environment we would change our behaviour.”  This has occurred to a certain extent and better information is probably a good thing, but it’s not enough of an explanation. Although the Fukushima nuclear leakage was some years back, it have greatly affected the economic, social and political operations of different countries all over the world.

Again, why do we have pollution?

The simple answer is that we must!  Waste products are an inevitable consequence of consumption and production activities.  This is a straightforward consequence of the fundamental laws of thermodynamics.  First law: Energy and matter cannot be created nor destroyed, only transformed.  The second law is the entropy law, which limits our ability to recycle.

Once we accept that waste products are inevitable, we have a very practical problem: How to dispose of the waste that is generated by consumption and production activities? And, agents will look for the cheapest way to get rid of the waste. Example:  When I was young we simply burned our household waste.  That was the cheapest way to get rid of it. And, it didn’t hurt anyone.  This is typical.  Individual decisions about waste disposal usually do not change the environment at all[1].  However, when lots of people burn their household trash it becomes a problem.

Japan Fukushima

The destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, caused by an earthquake and subsequent tsunami, resulted in massive radioactive contamination of the Japanese mainland. In November 2011, the Japanese Science Ministry reported that long-lived radioactive cesium had contaminated 11,580 square miles (30,000 square km) of the land surface of Japan. Some 4,500 square miles – an area almost the size of Connecticut – was found to have radiation levels that exceeded Japan’s allowable exposure rate of 1 mSV (millisievert) per year.

About a month after the disaster, on April 19, 2011, Japan chose to increase drastically its official “safe” radiation exposure levels from 1 mSv to 20 mSv per year – 20 times higher than the US exposure limit.  This allowed the Japanese government to downplay the dangers of the fallout and avoid evacuation of many badly contaminated areas.

However, all of the land within 12 miles (20 km) of the destroyed nuclear power plant, encompassing an area of about 230 square miles (600 sq km), and an additional 80 square miles (200 sq km) located northwest of the plant, were declared too radioactive for human habitation. All persons living in these areas were evacuated and the regions were declared to be permanent “exclusion” zones[2].

The precise value of the abandoned cities, towns, agricultural lands, businesses, homes and property located within the roughly 310 sq miles (800 sq km) of the exclusion zones has not been established[3].  Estimates of the total economic loss range from $250-$500 billion US.  As for the human costs, in September 2012, Fukushima officials stated that 159,128 people had been evicted from the exclusion zones, losing their homes and virtually all their possessions. Most have received only a small compensation to cover their costs of living as evacuees.  Many are forced to make mortgage payments on the homes they left inside the exclusion zones[4]. They have not been told that their homes will never again be habitable.

Radioactive cesium has taken up residence in the exclusion zone, replacing the human inhabitants.  Cesium-137 has a half-life of 30 years, and since it takes about 10 half-lives for any radionuclide to disappear, it will maintain ownership of the exclusion zone for centuries.

Once a large amount of radioactive cesium enters an ecosystem, it quickly becomes ubiquitous, contaminating water, soil, plants and animals[5]. It has been detected in a large range of Japanese foodstuffs, including spinach, tea leaves, milk, beef, and freshwater fish up to 200 miles from Fukushima.  Radioactive cesium bio accumulates, bio concentrates, and biomagnifies as it moves up the food chain. Routine ingestion of foods contaminated with so-called “low levels” of radioactive cesium has been shown to lead to its bioaccumulation in the heart and endocrine tissues, as well as in the kidneys, small intestines, pancreas, spleen and liver.  This process occurs much faster in children than in adults, and children are many times more susceptible than adults to the effects of the ionizing radiation their internal organs are then exposed to.

The economic state of Japan before the incidence and after the incidence

Not so long ago, Fukushima was a quiet rural region of Japan, renowned for its green mountains, hot springs and sweet summer peaches. Today, however, the Fukushima region, in northeast Japan, has more sinister associations: it has achieved global notoriety as home to one of the world’s worst nuclear disasters in modern history.

It was more than nine months ago when Japan was rattled by the powerful March 11 earthquake and Tsunami which claimed close to 20,000 lives across swathes of the eastern coast. Despite the passing of time, the nation remains far from recovered, as it continues to struggle not only with reconstructing the damaged regions – but also in dealing with the nuclear fallout triggered by the disaster.

Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, 150 miles northeast of Tokyo, was severely damaged by the earthquake and tsunami with its crucial cooling systems knocked out, resulting in a series of explosions, meltdowns – and the world’s worst nuclear accident in 25 years[6].

As a result, today more than 80,000 residents remain evacuated across the country, with no immediate prospect of being able to return to their abandoned homes and businesses. The impact on the local economy has been no less harsh, with local industries, farm produce and tourism all strongly affected by associations of the name Fukushima with “nuclear contamination”. Faced with a litany of problems, challenges and delays, Tokyo Electric Power Co, operators of the nuclear plant, have spent months working to bring it into a state of cold shutdown and claim to have at last succeeded.

Achieving cold shutdown may mark an important milestone in the recovery process, however, it will not mean that Japan’s problems are over: it will simply mark the next chapter of a painfully long recovery process for the nation. Removal of the fuel from the reactors could take another ten years, according to expert estimates, while a full decommissioning profess could also last several decades. Meanwhile, residents will not automatically be allowed to return, as the region has been earmarked for a major clean-up, although the government recently confirmed that this may not be able to commence until March next year at the earliest.

In addition to the physical cleanup of the area – which will involve painstaking industrial cleansing of all buildings and removal of topsoil – there are continued concerns in relation to food safety across the country. While Japanese food produce was once synonymous with safety and high quality production, a string of food safety scares – from green tea and beef to rice and even baby milk formula – have resulted in a growing sense of distrust among the public for government contamination safety testing.

The next steps for the government? First, they must continue to find the funds to finance the cleanup, the reconstruction, the financial support for displaced residents, the health testing of children and the compensation payments for all those affected. But another big challenge that lies ahead in 2012 is the government’s stance in relation to nuclear power. Although faced with a growing public backlash against all things nuclear, the nation’s 54 reactors are already slowly making a comeback[7].

Last month (NOV), the utilization ratio of the nation’s reactors rebounded to more than 20 per cent for the first time since the disaster, with a total of ten reactors back online.

Private companies, however, are increasingly tapping into the energy backlash, with a growing number of projects exploring alternative sources such as solar, wind and geothermal – all of which are likely to become increasingly visible in Japan after next year as a growing number of new high-tech eco-communities are reconstructed from the rubble of the March 11 disaster.

The regional economic state of other countries, and how it has changed over time

Japan’s triple disaster-earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident-had a very strong impact on the Japanese economy[8]. It negatively impacted the national and international economy through disruption of production chains-the factor that ultimately made the largest contribution to the sharp drop in production in Japan and neighboring economies.

The disaster’s direct impact on the global economy ultimately turns out to be limited. Japan’s supply-side shock at the end of Q1 changed little in the demand addressed to its main trading partners. The decline in Japanese demand was partly counterbalanced by higher imports to offset the transient shortfall in domestic supply, notably for energy. All in all, the decline in Japanese imports was very slight, especially in comparison with the decline in exports.

The indirect effect transmitted through globalized production chains was significantly larger, both in Japan and in the rest of the world[9]. As a quasi-monopoly supplier of key technological products for the electronics and automotive industries, Japan has a strategic position at the heart of global production chains. The disaster caused production chain disruptions in those industries; the impact was particularly visible in the Asian countries, notably because Japan supplies those countries with a higher percentage of their imports of intermediate goods than other parts of the world.

Japan plays a key role in Asian trade where production chains are highly integrated. Schematically, Japan supplies sophisticated intermediate goods to and buys final goods from its Asian partners including China, the pivot of the new international division of labor, which performs assembly and transformation of the semi finished products. Given the network structure of production processes, a shock affecting an upstream producer can cause strong fluctuations in the economy as a whole, through cascade effects from one firm to another.8 As noted by the IMF, Japan is clearly upstream in the global supply chain and is an important source of foreign value added in the gross exports of other Asian countries.

The positive attributes that the incidence brought to Japan

In addition to the devastating environmental and human costs of this human-made nuclear disaster, the ongoing catastrophe radically reshaped the energy landscape in Japan and will continue to impact the nuclear industry globally[10]. Perhaps there is no more poetic an indicator of the shift away from nuclear than the Fukushima Prefectural government stating in December 2012 that its first objective to revitalize the disaster-ravaged prefecture was, “building a safe, secure, and sustainable society free from nuclear power.”4 In 2014, the prefectural government followed through on that goal with a committed to a 100% renewable energy target by 2040.5

In Japan, all forty-eight nuclear reactors (discounting Fukushima Daiichi) are in what is considered Long Term Outage.6 and on 11 March 2015, Japan will be just shy of a year and a half since it has been completely nuclear free, with the last remaining reactor powered down on 15 September 2013[11]. The significance, both domestically and globally, of the third largest nuclear power program in the world not generating any electricity from its nuclear reactors for nearly 18 months is more than symbolic. It unequivocally demonstrates that nuclear energy, contrary to government and power company claims, is not an indispensable energy source.

The reality in Japan is mirrored globally, the disaster accelerating the decade’s long decline of an already outdated and noncompetitive technology.

However, the powerful vested interests in government, utilities, and industry – the infamous ‘nuclear village’ that created the conditions that led to the March 2011 Fukushima accident – are determined to resume nuclear reactor operations in Japan.

Globally, the nuclear industry and its advocacy organizations continue to present nuclear power as a re-emerging technology that can address the biggest problems facing humanity[12]. Or, as the industry promotional body, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), states on its site, “Over the past several years, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear power, both from countries with established nuclear power programmers and countries that are interested in beginning a programmer.”

While this may sound quite positive for nuclear power, the reality is far more negative for the nuclear industry. This brief will provide a candid overview of impact of the Fukushima disaster on the nuclear industry, both within Japan and globally.

The Negative attributes brought about by the incidence

The disaster galvanized majority public opposition to nuclear energy, as the public turned out in record numbers to oppose nuclear power in the ensuing years[13].19 Four years after the beginning of the Fukushima disaster, the majority of the public is still opposed to nuclear restarts.20 Given the successive failures to meet declared targets for nuclear restarts 21 and significant delays, the future of nuclear power in Japan is increasingly uncertain[14]. It certainly cannot be described as a necessary, reliable, and stable energy source as the Abe government has been trying to claim.





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[2] Holt, Mark, Richard J. Campbell, and Mary Beth Nikitin. Fukushima nuclear disaster. Congressional Research Service, 2012.


[3] Joskow, Paul L., and John E. Parsons. 2012. “The Future of Nuclear Power after Fukushima.”  Economics Of Energy And Environmental Policy 1, no. 2: 99-113. EconLit, EBSCOhost (accessed February 5, 2016).


[4] Welsch, Heinz, and Philipp Biermann. “Fukushima and the Preference for Nuclear Power in Europe: Evidence from Subjective Well-being Data.” Ecological Economics 108 (2014): 171-79


[5] Kato, Takaaki, Shogo Takahara, Masashi Nishikawa, and Toshimitsu Homma. 2013. “A Case Study of Economic Incentives and Local Citizens’ Attitudes toward Hosting a Nuclear Power Plant in Japan: Impacts of the Fukushima Accident.” Energy Policy 59, 808-818. EconLit, EBSCOhost (accessed February 5, 2016).


[6] Koyama, Ken. 2013. “Japan’s Post-Fukushima Energy Policy Challenges.” Asian Economic Policy Review 8, no. 2: 274-293. EconLit, EBSCOhost (accessed February 5, 2016).


[7] Srinivasan, T. N., and TS Gopi Rethinaraj. “Fukushima and thereafter: Reassessment of risks of nuclear power.” Energy Policy 52 (2013): 726-736.


[8] Schneider, Mycle, Antony Froggatt, and Steve Thomas. “Nuclear Power in a Post-Fukushima World.” The World Nuclear Status Report (2011).


[9] Steinhauser, Georg, Alexander Brandl, and Thomas E. Johnson. “Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts.” Science of the Total Environment 470 (2014): 800-817.


[10] Rehdanz, Katrin, Heinz Welsch, Daiju Narita, and Toshihiro Okubo. “Well-being Effects of a Major Natural Disaster: The Case of Fukushima.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 116 (2015): 500-17


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Retrieved from AceMyHW.com


Person-centered and cognitive behavior approach


Fear and sadness are two emotions that affect the state of the mind. These two emotions alter the level of psychological well-being, which is reflected in people’s emotions and behaviors. Nonetheless, physicians over the years have developed certain form of therapeutic counselling, with the aim being restoring peoples’ mental health to the most acceptable level. While none of the approaches adopted can be said to effective, their results are manifested differently in various patients. Among the most used approaches, include person-centered and cognitive behavioral approaches to counseling. On one hand, cognitive behavior approach seeks to increase self-awareness through introducing better understanding and improving self-control. On the other hand, person-centered approach aims at increasing one self-esteem in order for patients to have a greater openness to experience and find their state of belonging (Tursi & Cochran, 2006). Apparently, while their end-result may be similar, their theoretical rationale, therapeutic interventions, and processes of change may be different. Based on this analogy, this paper will compare and contrast these two approaches, paying close attention to their effects on mental health.

Person-centered approach

According to Holder (2013), person-centered counselling and psychotherapy approach places much of the responsibility for treatment in the hands of the patient as opposed to the therapist. Developed in the 1950s by an American Psychologist namely Carl Rongers, this approach aims at increasing self-esteem and greater openness to the experience. The rationale behind this approach is that therapy can take place in a supportive environment. This environment is best created by forming close personal ties between the client and the therapist. The essence of using the term client as opposed to patient is to eliminate the notion that someone is seek and thus need medical attention. For this reason, this approach relies on self-actualization, in which case it encourages the client to move forward and reach their fullest potential.

Like in any other form of therapeutic treatment, the success of this approach depends more on the skills and experience of the trainer. For it to be effective, the therapist should have congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy. This is the ability to be open and willing to relate with the client, accept the condition of the client, and show emotional understanding as opposed to a sense of sympathy. The therapist should understand the condition of the client, while at the same time understanding that the condition can be rectified with positive thoughts. It is after such an understanding that the therapy can be able to appreciate the client’s situation from their perspective. This eventually makes the two parties to express freely themselves without having to worry of being judged.

Individuals, groups, or even a family uses this approach. With no strict guidelines regarding the length or frequency of the therapy, the clients are advised to make their own schedule, including the length of the session. With a good schedule, and the cooperation of the parties involved, the clients are expected to have normal results. These results are characterized by improvement of self-esteem, improved trust of one’s inner self, ability to make right and informed decision, as well as reduction in the level of defensiveness. Normal results are sustainable even in the long run. However, not always do people experience normal results. Abnormal results are characterized abnormal behaviors that were demonstrated before the therapy began. Nonetheless, this does not mean that the client can be treated, and it is upon both parties to find better ways of rectifying the results (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorder, 2016).

This approach is very critical in understanding problems relating to fear and sadness. To begin with, this with great openness, clients are able to face the underlying issues that make them fear things. In addition, this approach boosts self-esteem, thus increasing happiness. Apparently, people with low self-esteem always fear what will happen to them and are not happy with the issues they are facing.

Cognitive behavioral approaches

This form of therapy gives more emphasis on the way people feel and want to do in shaping their thinking. It is the most common type of therapy, and has been used for a long time to treat people with mental problems. The approach combines peoples’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to find solutions for the problems. The rationale behind this is to break things into smaller pieces and dealing with each component at a time. For instance, this approach breaks down the solution into two components, the practical, and the solution-focused components. The practical component is the cognitive part, in which case the therapist assist the client to understand any negative thought or pattern, how they affect the client, as well as what the clients need to do in order to change them. On the other hand, the behavioral component deals with learning the appropriate behaviors, and this assists the client to get out of the bad cycles. It is good to note that both the components must be interlinked in order to achieve the best possible solution.

During the session, the therapist sits one-on-one with the client or in a group if it is a group session. Both the patient and the client are required to collaborate throughout the session, in which case the one opens up to the therapist. With active involvement, both parties are required to observe strict confidentiality, without judging one another. Based on the need of the client, the sessions can last between six weeks and six months. During this time, the sessions are supposed to last for one hour, but they can prolong especially during group therapy. It is good to note that there is no strict guidelines to be followed during the session, with the therapist having the mandate to assign the clients any task they deem fit.

Cognitive behavioral therapy has its share of benefits as well as problems. The greatest benefit is that it is an effective treatment process for mental health, especially depression. As the clients engage with a professional, they become more aware of their mental health and this assist during recovery. Another advantage is the structure of CBT, in which case it is more open. This allows the parties involved to implement the skill learned in their day-to-day life. On the contrary, the sessions require both parties to be fully committed. Any laxity in the process may not yield the expected outcome. Critics on the other hand argue that CBT only explores the current problem without paying much attention to the root cause. For this reason, it is possible for the patients to heal at the moment only to develop further complications in the future (Josefowitz & Myran, 2005).

Fear and sadness are feeling, and for this reason, this approach touches on the way people feel. By focusing much on people feeling, this approach conquers fear and sadness since a person is able to understand their inner feeling and share them with someone else. As the clients understand what causes their fear and sadness, the therapist is able to assign the clients tasks and homework to alleviate these feelings.

Differences between cognitive behavior and person-centered

According to Tursi & Cochran (2006), one key different between these two approaches to therapy is their view on behavior. On one hand, CBT views behavior as an aspect that is learned by individuals during their session. On the other hand, person-centered approach asserts that clients have in the past been unable to master their self-actualization. For this reason, human will never be fully satisfied as long as they have different perspective of their action. For the CBT, human can learn their behaviors through the interaction of their psychology, cognition, and emotions. People thus behave in a certain way as a result of their perception of the existing element. This is contrary to the person-centered approach, which views peoples’ behavior as a product of their subjective experience.

Cognitive behavioral approach is directive in which case clients are taught skills that would enable them to cope with life. This is not the case in person-centered approach, in which case clients are self-taught. CBT focuses on specific goals that enable the clients to reduce their emotional torment, while at the same time changing their behaviors. For instance, a client can be shown how to direct his anger on a punching bag. This scenario is different from person-centered in which case the client has to learn such behaviors from within. The last difference is that cognitive behavioral therapy has a set period of time for undertaking the therapy, which is not the same for person-centered approach. The rationale behind having a specific set period is to encourage the client to seek solutions within themselves without interference from the therapist. Apparently, the therapists are not required to any form of intervention to the client.

With a similar aim of bringing change through a therapeutic process, both PCT and CBT differ in the process of empowering the client (Josefowitz & Myran, 2005). On one hand, PCT has four basic processes, which begins by enabling the clients to express their feelings. In this case, the therapists encourage the clients to air out what is inside them in a non-judgmental way. The second process is reflecting on the client’s current situation and problems, with the aim of having a deeper understanding. Thirdly, the partied undergo the process of clarifying the problems and the situation. This is followed by deciding the best approach and changes to make. On the other hand, CBT has an extra process, with the first one being the definition of the problem and setting the goals. This is followed by accessing and examining the client’s thoughts. Any irrational thought identified is disputed in the next process. The client is then assigned the relevant tasks and homework, which are later reevaluated in the last process (Guterman & Rudes, 2005).


Major similarity between these two approaches to therapy is that they both deals with the conscious mind. This means that they try to cure a problem that is already known to the client, as opposed to the subconscious approach. They focus on the current issues that a client may be facing. The best part is that clients can affirm their problem, while at the same time undergoing a session to determine the best solutions. This makes them have a positive attitude toward the current nature of the client. They posit that clients are fully aware of their current state of the mind, and are willing to engage with a therapist to determine their own future. As a result, all the mechanisms used during the treatment are healthy and collaborative in nature, with their main goals being to improve the well-being of the client.

Another similarity between these two approaches is the key concepts applied in both models. To begin with, both approaches strive to create an environment is which case the clients relaxers the most. Both approaches understand that for the clients to get the necessary assistance, they need to relax first. Another key component is normalizing the reactions and behaviors of the client. People with mental health issues tend to react differently, even from a simple issue. Making them understand their reaction is not key to their solution is a great task that the therapists have to contend with (Josefowitz & Myran, 2005). The last key concept is developing a positive therapeutic relationship through the use of empathy and unconditional positive regard. This concept entails understanding the perspective of the clients, and offering assistance from their own perspective. It is good to note that unlike other forms of ailment mentally challenged people do not need sympathy but rather a deeper understanding of the situation.


Each of the approach has its share of strengths and weaknesses, making it hard to determine which approach is better than the other is. Individuals have the liberty of choosing either, depending on their own personal reference as well as the severity of their mental health. However, in whatever approach they may choose, they must understand that for it to work they must be willing to collaborate. They must open up, discussing those issues that affect them. This is to allow the therapist to find the most appropriate recommendation for their illness. It is also good to note that therapists may consider integrating these two approaches as long as they remain systematic and consistent. Picking the advantage from either may be the best approach in the near future.


Encyclopedia of Mental Disorder. (2016, March 28). Person-centered therapy . Retrieved from http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Person-centered-therapy.html

Guterman, J., & Rudes, J. (2005). A solution-focused approach to rational-emotive behavior therapy: Toward a theoretical integration. Journal of Rational &Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, 23(3), 223-244.

Holder, J. B. (2013, August 21). Comparing and Contrasting Three of the Main Counselling approaches. Retrieved from http://www.counselling-directory.org.uk/counsellor-articles/what-are-they-comparing-and-contrasting-the-three-main-counselling-approaches

Josefowitz, N., & Myran, D. (2005). Towards a person-centered cognitive behavior therapy. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 18(4), 329-336.

Tursi, M. M., & Cochran, J. L. (2006). Cognitive-Behavioral Tasks Accomplished in a Person-Centered Relational Framework. Journal of Counseling and Development, 84(4), 387-396.

Tursi, M., & Cochran, J. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral tasks accomplished in person-centeredrelational framework. Journal of Counseling & Development, 84, 387-398.